Article 8218

Title of the article

“MOONSHINE NO MORE!”. THE PROBLEM OF DRUNKENNESS IN THE ORGANS OF THE DISTRICT GOVERNMENT
OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD PROVINCE IN 1920s. 

Authors

Dashkin Rinat Anvyarovich, Postgraduate student, National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod (2 Ulyanova street, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia), dashkinra@yandex.ru
Somov Vladimir Aleksandrovich, Doctor of historical sciences, associate professor, professor of the department of history and politics of Russia, National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod (2 Ulyanova street, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia),
somoff33@yandex.ru 

Index UDK

94(470)"1921/1926" 

DOI

10.21685/2072-3024-2018-2-8

Abstract

Background. In recent years significantly increased the interest of researchers to the period of the NEP. Currently, relevant seems the study of factors that influenced to the mentality of the citizens of the RSFSR of the NEP period. The discussion about the NEP can be supplemented by the study of mentality and its determinants.
A significant factor in the problem of studying the mentality is the study of phenomena: drunkenness, moonshining and the struggle against them. This line of investigation can add to the image of Soviet authority in the mass consciousness of the peasantry. The purpose of this article is to study the influence of the factors of drunkenness and moonshining at the formation of the image of Soviet authority in the mass consciousness of inhabitants of the rural districts of Nizhny Novgorod province in the period from late 1921s to the beginning of 1926s.
Materials and methods. The study involves the widest possible use of multiple types of sources, including: research, campaign literature and a study period; the materials of the party archive containing the minutes of the meetings of the provincial Committee, and special materials to them, reports the GPU and criminal investigation department summary sheets, forms and complaints, witness statements and trial transcripts, and materials of the investigative bodies and the Prosecutor’s office.
The source base was both published and previously unpublished record keeping documentation. The methodological basis of research are principles of scientific objectivity and historicism. The authors used the comparative-historical method, which was able to match different factors in these counties and to identify their specifics. For a more impartial evaluation of the work of the authorities, the authors used statistical method.
Results. It was studied the peculiarities of the period of the NEP in the Nizhny Novgorod region and features of the formation of the provincial Soviet authorities. Researched County main provincial centres on the subject of how moonshine and drunkenness affect the processes of criminalisation and the degradation of the representatives of local authorities. Characteristic for a number of counties the population’s attitude towards the Executive authorities and the connection of this relationship with moonshining and drunkenness.
Conclusions. In some districts of Nizhny Novgorod province in the period from 1921 to 1926 was a decline in the authority of local government in the minds of the County population due to the antisocial behavior of the authorities on the grounds of drunkenness. Breaking the legislation in the sphere of turnover of alcoholic beverages, authorities discredited criminal and administrative law, as an integral norm. Drunkenness became the norm of public life of the districts, provoking the growth of banditry and epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases. The prevalence of drunkenness decreased level of trust of the population in the counties to the activities and initiatives of the Soviet government. The fight against alcoholism has become one of the main tasks in strengthening Soviet power in the field. 

Key words

NEP, drunkenness, moonshining, the peasantry, the kulaks, society and power, the criminal investigation Department (CID, UGRO), County Committee (UKOM), township Committee (VOLKOM), the militia, the GPU, social history, history of everyday life, the Nizhny Novgorod province 

 

 Download PDF

References

1. Deychman E. I. Alkogolizm i bor'ba s nim [Alcoholism and the fight against it]. Moscow: Moskovskiy rabochiy, 1929, 224 p.
2. Sherstneva E. V. Problemy sotsial'noy gigieny, zdravookhraneniya i istorii meditsiny [Problems of social hygiene, health and medical history]. 2014, no. 4, pp. 54–58.
3. Mayakovskiy V. V. Polnoe sobranie sochineniy: v 13 t. [Complete set of works: in 13 volumes]. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo khudozhestvennoy literatury, 1957, vol. 5, 480 p.
4. Zoshchenko M. M. Sobranie sochineniy: v 7 t. [Set of works: in 7 volumes]. Moscow, 2006, vol. 2, 753 p.
5. Khrestomatiya po istorii otechestvennogo gosudarstva i prava: v 2 ch. [Reading-book
of the history of the domestic state and law: in 2 parts]. Comp. A. V. Skorobogatov, L. I. Galeeva. Kazan: Izd-vo «Taglimat» IEUP, 2006, part 1, 451 p.
6. Ugolovnyy kodeks RSFSR. Ofitsial'nyy tekst s izmeneniyami na 1 iyulya 1950 g. i s prilozheniem postateyno-sistematizirovannykh materialov [Criminal Code of the RSFSR. Official text as amended on the 1st of July 1950 and with the application of articlesystematized materials]. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izd-vo yuridicheskoy literatury, 1950, 256 p.
7. Bekhterev V. M. Alkogolizm i bor'ba s nim [Alcoholism and the fight against it]. Leningrad, 1927, 65 p.
8. Larin Yu. Alkogolizm i sotsializm [Alcoholism and socialism]. Moscow, 1929, 144 p.
9. Berlyand A. S. Izba-chital'nya i sanitarnoe prosveshchenie [Village reading room and health education]. Moscow: Izd-vo Narkomzdrava RSFSR, 1927, 256 p.
10. Alkogolizm v khudozhestvennoy literature: khrestomatiya [Alcoholism in fiction: reading book]. Comp. by A. S. Berlyand. Moscow; Leningrad: Medgiz, 1930, 200 p.
11. Gertsenzon A. A. Prestupnost' i alkogolizm v RSFSR [Crime and alcoholism in the RSFSR]. Moscow: Krasnyy pechatnik, 1930, 146 p.
12. Shepilov D. T. Alkogolizm i prestupnost' [Alcoholism and crime]. Gosudarstvennyy institut po izucheniyu prestupnosti i prestupnika. Moscow: Izd. i tip. izd-va Nar. kom. vnutr. del RSFSR, 1930, 104 p.
13. Korzhikhina T. P. Voprosy istorii [Questions of history]. 1985, no. 9, pp. 39–47.
14. Nauchno-vspomogatel'nyy khronologicheskiy bibliograficheskiy obzor zakonov, rasporyazheniy i postanovleniy pravitel'stva RSFSR o proizvodstve i realizatsii alkogolya, o merakh bor'by protiv p'yanstva i alkogolizma, ob utverzhdenii trezvogo obraza zhizni
(1917–1988 gg.): v 2 ch. [Scientific auxiliary chronological bibliographic review of laws, orders and regulations of the RSFSR government for the production and sale of alcohol, on measures to combat drunkenness and alcoholism, on the approval of
a sober lifestyle (1917–1988): in 2 parts]. Comp.: A. N. Yakushev, V. A. Lastochkin. Moscow, 1989, part 2, 362 p.
15. Parkhomenko A. G. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i parvo [Soviet government and law]. 1984, no. 4, pp. 112–116.
16. Yarov S. V. Narodnaya bor'ba za trezvost' v russkoy istorii: materialy seminara, provedennogo obshchestvami bor'by za trezvost' BAN SSSR, LGU, LOII AN SSSR (18 dekabrya 1987 g.) [People’s struggle for sobriety in Russian history: materials of a seminar held by societies for sobriety of the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, St. Petersburg Institute for History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (18th of December 1987)]. Leningrad: BAN SSSR, 1989, 47 p.
17. Kiryushchenko A. G., Petrova F. N. Antialkogol'naya pravovaya politika i antialkogol'noe zakonodatel'stvo sovetskogo gosudarstva: uroki istorii i puti sovershenstvovaniya: monografiya [Anti-alcohol legal policy and anti-alcohol legislation of the Soviet
state: history lessons and ways to improve: monograph]. Saint-Petersburg: Sankt-Peterburgskiy un-t MVD Rossii, 1998, 156 p.
18. Lebina N. B. Povsednevnaya zhizn' sovetskogo goroda: Normy i anomalii. 1920–1930 gody [Daily life of the Soviet city: Norms and anomalies. 1920–1930]. Saint-Petersburg: Letniy Sad, 1999, 320 p.
19. Panin S. E. Sotsiologicheskiy zhurnal [Sociological journal]. 2002, no. 4, pp. 92–102.
20. Ivanov D. V. Vestnik Ekaterininskogo instituta [Bulletin of the Institute of Ekaterinburg]. 2016, no. 1 (33), pp. 109–114.
21. Nezhigay E. N. Vestnik Akademii znaniy [Bulletin of the Academy of Knowledge]. 2013, no. 4, pp. 22–26.
22. Blinov M. L. Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta. Ser.: Istoriya i filologiya [Bulletin of Udmurt State University. History and philology]. 2013, no. 5-3, pp. 141–146.
23. Vorob'ev S. V. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Ser.: Istoriya [Bulletin of Perm State University. History]. 2014, no. 2 (25), pp. 60–71.
24. Grekov A. Yu. Vestnik Tikhookeanskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of Pacific National University]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 277–286.
25. Prokhorov V. V. Pravo i gosudarstvo: problemy metodologii, teorii i istorii: materialy V Vseros. nauch.-prakt. konf. [Law and the state: problems of methodology, theory and history: proceedings of the V All-Russian scientific and practical conference]. Krasnodar,
2016, pp. 179–182.
26. Bagdasaryan V. E., Orlov I. B. Piteynaya politika i «p'yanaya kul'tura» v Rossii: vek XX [Drinking policy and “drunk culture” in Russia: XX century]. Moscow: Izd-vo MGOU, 2005, 175 p.
27. Lapshina O. Yu. Material'no-bytovoe obespechenie rabochikh promyshlennosti v gody NEPa: Na materialakh Nizhegorodskoy i Vyatskoy guberniy: dis. kand. ist. nauk [Material supply of industrial workers in the years of NEP: On the materials of the
Nizhny Novgorod and Vyatka provinces: dissertation to apply for the degree of the candidate of historical sciences]. Nizhniy Novgorod, 2002, 382 p.
28. Gosudarstvennyy obshchestvenno-politicheskiy arkhiv Nizhegorodskoy oblasti (GOPANO) [State socio-political archive of the Nizhny Novgorod region]. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3585. L. 227.
29. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3623. L. 163.
30. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3060. L. 173.
31. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3061. L. 75.
32. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3068. L. 188.
33. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3841. L. 30.
34. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3624. L. 168.
35. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3562. L. 142.
36. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3281. L. 46.
37. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3298. L. 198.
38. Nizhegorodskaya kommuna [Nizhny Novgorod municipality]. 1920, no. 63, L. 3; no. 65. L. 4; 1920, no. 127, L. 2.
39. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3054. L. 102.
40. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3048. L. 31.
41. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3050. L. 59.
42. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3046. L. 10.
43. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 2994. L. 74.
44. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3280. L. 85.
45. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3450. L. 45.
46. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3560. L. 69.
47. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3053. L. 66.
48. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 4047. L. 243.
49. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3470. L. 62.
50. Obshchestvo i vlast'. Rossiyskaya provintsiya, 1917–1980-e gody: (po materialam nizhegorodskikh arkhivov): v 3 t. [Society and authority. Russian province, 1917–1980s: (based on materials from Nizhny Novgorod archives): in 3 volumes]. Moscow; Nizhniy
Novgorod: In-t rossiyskoy istorii RAN, 2002, vol. 1, 640 p.
51. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 2984. L. 31.
52. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3096. L. 112.
53. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3147. L. 98.
54. GOPANO. F. 1. Op. 1. D. 3051. L. 106. 

 

Дата создания: 18.01.2019 08:34
Дата обновления: 18.01.2019 14:30